Pelegrina Franganillo and other jumping spiders formerly placed in the genus Metaphidippus (Araneae: Salticidae)

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:1996
Authors:W. P. Maddison
Journal:Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College

The genus Pelegrina Franganillo contains 38 species of dendryphantine jumping spiders from North and Central America that were formerly placed in the genus Metaphidippus F. O. Pickard- Cambridge. The close relatives of the Dendryphan- tinae may include the Europhryinae and several smaller groups, for they share an embolus that is coiled counterclockwise (left palp) and separated from the tegulum by a fully expandable hematodocha. The subfamily Dendryphantinae itself is delimited by the derived conditions of a carina on the underside of the male chelicera, the coil of the embolus folded back so as to be hidden behind the base of the embolus, and S-shaped epigynal openings. Within the subfamily, generic relationships are poorly understood, but it is clear that the genus Metaphidippus is polyphyletic. The genus should include at most a few species closely related to the neotropical genera Messua G. & E. Peckham, Bagheera G. & E. Peckham, and Gastromicans Mello- Leitao. Gastromicans is removed from synonymy with Beata G. & E. Peckham. The following new com- binations are established for species in this group: Bagheera prosper (G. & E. Peckham), Messua centralis (G. & E. Peckham), Messua dentiger (F. P.- Cambridge), Messua donalda (Kraus), Messua lata (Chickering), Messua laxa (Chickering), Messua limbata (Banks), Messua moma (F. P. -Cambridge), Mes- sua octonotata (F. P. -Cambridge), Messua pura (Bryant), Messua tridentata (F. P.-Cambridge), Gas- tromicans albopilosa (G. & E. Peckham), Gastromicans hondurensis (G. & E. Peckham), Gastromicans levispina (F. P.-Cambridge), Gastromicans noxiosa (Simon), and Gastromicans vigens (G. & E. Peckham). The combination Messua desidiosa G. & E. Peckham is revived. The proper placement of various groups currently assigned to Metaphidippus is discussed, and the harfordii group is transferred to the genus Phanias F. P. -Cambridge, which appears to be relatively distantly related to most other dendryphantines. The following new combinations are established: Phanias albeolus (Chamberlin & Ivie), Phanias concoloratus (Chamberlin & Gertsch), Phanias dominatus (Chamberlin & Ivie), Phanias furcifer (Gertsch), Phanias furcillatus (F. P. -Cambridge), Phanias harfordii (G. & E. Peckham), Phanias monticola (Banks), Phanias neomexicanus (Banks), and Phanias watonus (Chamberlin & Ivie). Also removed from Metaphidippus are the mylothrus and castaneus groups, for which the new genera Terralonus and Ghelna are described, thus yielding the new combinations Terralonus californicus (G. & E. Peckham), Terralonus mylothrus (Chamberlin), Terralonus unicus (Chamberlin & Gertsch), Terralonus shaferi (Gertsch & Riechert), Terralonus versicolor (G. & E. Peckham), Terralonus vittatus (Banks), Terralonus fraternus (Banks), Ghelna castanea (Hentz), Ghelna barrotvsi (Kaston), Ghelna sexmaculata (Banks), and Ghelna canadensis (Banks). The new combination Sassacus paiutus (Gertsch) is established. The vitis group is retained in Metaphidippus. The limits of the genera Dendryphantes C. L. Koch and Beata G. & E. Peckham are also reconsidered. The combination Dendryphantes nigromaculatus Keyserling is revived and the following combinations established: Beata hispida (G. & E. Peckham), Beata inconcinna (G. & E. Peckham), Beata maccunii (G. & E. Peckham), and Beata rustica (G. & E. Peckham). Dryphias (G. & E. Peckham) is synonymized with Beata. The largest group removed from Metaphidippus is placed in the genus Pelegrina Franganillo, 1930, whose species are, with some exceptions, distin- guished from other dendryphantines by the presence of two terminal rami retrolateral to the embolus open- ing, an embolic hematodocha that bulges distally, wrinkles on the anterior margin of the male cheliceral fang, a distinct band of pale scales on the side of the face, and male courtship with the first legs held low and forward. The following species are moved into Pelegrina: P. aeneola (Curtis), P. arizonensis (G. & E. Peckham), P. bicuspidata (F. P.-Cambridge), P. clemata (Levi & Levi), P. exigua (Banks), P.flaviceps (Kaston), P.flavipedes (G. & E. Peckham), P.furcata (F. P. -Cambridge), P. galathea (Walckenaer), P. he- lenae (Banks), P. insignis (Banks), P. montana (Emerton), P. ochracea (F. P.-Cambridge), P. pallidata (F. P.-Cambridge), P. peckhamorum (Kaston), P. pervaga (G. & E. Peckham), P. proterva (Walckenaer), P. proxima (G. & E. Peckham), P. tillandsiae (Kaston), P. variegata (F. P.-Cambridge), and P. verecunda (Chamberlin & Gertsch). Pelegrina proxima is shown to be a senior synonym of Pelegrina geniculata Franganillo, the latter being the types spe- cies of Pelegrina. A neotype is designated for Attus galathea Walckenaer. Seventeen species are described as new: P. balia, P. bunites, P. chaimona, P. chalceola, P. clavator, P. dithalea, P. edrilana, P.luiaclnica, P. kastoni, P. morelos, P. neoleonis, P. orestes, P. sabinctua, P. sandaracina, P. tristis, P. volcano, and P. ijucaiecana. Eitophnjs leucophaea C. L. Koch, Icitis crassiventer Keyserling, and Metaphiidippiis digitatus F. P. -Cambridge are newly synonymized with P. galathea; Dendrijphantes uteaniis Chamberlin & Gertsch with P. aeneola; and Dendryphantes mimiis Chamberlin with P. furcata. Euophrys concolor Banks is removed from synonymy with P. proterva and considered a senior synonym of Sittacus cursor Barrows, yielding the new combination Sittictis concolor. Identification keys are presented for all Pelegrina males and for females from restricted geographical regions. All species are de- scribed and illustrated. Male/female associations were achieved for all species north of Mexico. Courtship behavior is described for 22 species of Pelegrina, karyotypes for 10 species, and habitat information for most species. The genus Pelegrina may be closely related to the Metaphidippus mannii group, Nagaina and/or Eris. Nagaina incunda G. & E. Peckham is described and illustrated; Dendryphantes vegetns G. & E. Peckham, Metaphidippus flavoUneatus F. P. -Cambridge, and Metaphidippus expallidatus F. P.-Cambridge are synonymized with N. incunda. The species of the mannii group (temporarily retained in Metaphidippus) that occur in the United States are also described and illustrated; two new combinations, Metaphidippus chera (Chamberlin) and Metaphidippus carnienensis (Chamberlin), are established; one species, Metaphidippus emmiltus, is described as new; Dendryphantes versicolor G. & E. Peckham is synonymized with Metaphidippus mannii (G. & E. Peckham), and Metaphidippus franciscanus Schenkel with Metaphidippus dtplacis (Chamberlin).

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Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith